Wednesday, 28 February 2024


Kidney Transplant:


A kidney transplant is an operation in which a person with kidney failure receives a new kidney. The donor should have two healthy kidneys and the recipient's both kidneys should have failure. As you know each person can live with one healthy kidney.

Before kidney transplant both donor and recipient undergo various tests. The recipient should be healthy enough to endure the operation and take immunosu ppressant medicine.


The patient shouldn’t have any illness or infection at the time of kidney Transplantation just because after the operation due to taking immunosuppressant medicine they are in danger of infection.

 Kidney donors:

 There are two types of kidney donors:

1. A living donor who gives his/her kidney. It can be someone from family because there is high genetic compatibility between family members & also relatives.

2. A non-living donor who has died but his/her kidney is healthy &it is transplanted.


What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a kind of treatment. Where the kidneys cannot take care of body needs, & the kidneys have failed the person needs dialysis.


Kidney has the role of filtering & removing waste from blood, & also adjusting body's water level. Dialysis takes the role of the kidney & gives the person the chance to have a good & normal life.

What is dialysis role?

 - In peritoneal dialysis, your blood is cleaned inside your body. The doctor will do Surgery to place a plastic tube called a Catheter into your abdomen to make an access. During treatment, your abdominal area (called the peritoneal Cavity) is slowly filled with dialysis through the catheter.


The blood stays in the arteries & veins that line your peritoneal cavity. Extra fluid & waste products are drawn out of your blood & into the dialysate.

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is done without machines. You do it yourself, usually four or five times a day at home or work. The problem is the infection that is made around catheter.

When does a patient need dialysis?

You need dialysis when you develop end stage kidney failure usually by the time you lose about 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function & have a GFR of <15, or if you have constant fluid buildup & Symptoms of too much urea & other wastes in your blood. If the patient is suffering heart disease, lung disease or such diseases or even has problems in his sense of taste or Sensation in legs, dialysis is recommended


When your kidneys fail, dialysis keeps your body in balance by:

- removing waste, Salt & extra water to prevent them from building up in the body.

- keeping a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium & bicarbonate

- helping to control blood pressure

Types of dialysis:

There are two types of dialysis- hemo-dialysis & peritoneal dialysis.

- In hemo-dialysis an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer) is used to remove waste & extra Chemicals & fluid from the blood. To get your blood into the artificial kidney, the doctor needs to make an access (entrance) into your blood vessels. This is done by minor Surgery to your arm or leg. Sometimes, an access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel Called a fistula. Occasionally, an access is made by means of narrow plastic tube, called a catheter, which is inserted into a large vein in your neck.

Usually, each hemodialysis treatment lasts about 4 hours & is done three times per week.


Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy:

 Kidney & urethral stones are a common disease. Historically, large kidney & urethral stones were removed through open surgery, requiring a large flank incision. In this method the patients suffered pain for months. Techniques like extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWC) for Stones Smaller 2cm & percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNC) for stones larger than 2cm with minimized incision size, pain, blood loss, blood transfusions have higher success rate for clearing all stones for decades.