Wednesday, 28 February 2024

Gastroenterology & Scopy


It is the best way to diagnose helico bacter pylori infection, and its side effects. It gives you the possibility to view esophagus, stomach, and duodenum and also provides Possibility for sampling and diagnosing infection. Due to the outbreak of this infection in Iran and its vast side effects, it is very important to diagnose the type of condition that it has made (gastritis, ulcers, cancer), then decide what kind of treatment is more suitable and this only can be done through endoscopy.


Colonoscopy is a thin flexible tube that doctor uses to look at the colon. A colonoscopy helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors, and areas of inflammation or bleeding. Tissue samples can be collected (biopsy) and abnormal growths can be taken out.

Gastric balloon for weight loss:

Gastric balloon is a deflated silicone balloon that is inserted via the mouth and into the stomach, where it is filled with saline or lair to about the size of an orange. This reduces the amount of food the stomach can hold. it is a non-surgical method for losing weight.  

  Biliary and pancreatic duct endoscopy:


Observing biliary and pancreatic duct happened in the year 1968 for the first time. It is one of the most reliable ways to diagnose pancreatic and bilirary disease. Endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a study of ducts that drain the liver and pancreas. Diagnostic ERCP is when X-ray contrast dye is injected in to the bile duct, the pancreatic duct or both. This contrast dye is squirted through a small tube called a catheter that fits through the ERCP endoscope. X-rays are taken during ERCP to get pictures of these ducts. That is called diagnostic ERCP. However, most ERCPs are done for treatment and not just picture taking. When an ERCP is done to allow treatment, it is called therapeutic ERCP. Stone removal or stent replacement into the bile or pancreatic ducts to bypass strictures, or narrowed parts of the duct is some of the treatments.

 ERCP can be used in diagnosing gallstones; ulcers and side effects Truman or cancers. 


 ERCP diagnostic and therapeutic applications:

Bile duct jaundice-

Discomfort in the right upper after bile duct and gallbladder surgery -

-Bile duct severe infection

-Acute pancreatitis because of gallstone

Chronic and recurrent abdominal pain-

-Recent diabetes mellitus


-Sudden swelling of the pancreas

-Biliary drainage

Drainage of pancreas-

Dilation of narrowed bile duct with balloon-

Biliary sphincter pressure measurement-

-Biliary and pancreatic duct secretion sampling

Chronic pancreatitis inflammation -

Pancreatic pseudo cyst-

-Suspicious lesions reported in pancreas, liver and biliary duct CT scans or Ultrasound

 ERCP should not be used in these cases:

If the patient had Myocardial Infarction recently.-

Patient's inappropriate condition for surgery-

Patient has anaphylaxis background

Patients who have major problems in their circulatory system